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Címlap Város Településtörténet

A Polgár's settlement story

Based on the testimony of rich archaeological finds, revealed and now visible in museums, Polgár has been a rather old settlement. It is proven, that this place was continuously inhabited starting from prehistoric age.
It is uncertain about who the aborigines were. Based on archeological findings it can only be stated, that the development of Polgár’s local culture was influenced by many nations from prehistoric age till the age of the exodus. Árpád, the Hungarian conqueror has entrusted the occupation of this land to leaders Szabolcs, Tas and Töhötöm.
From these dwelling places was formed Szabolcs county, to which Polgár belonged at that time.
Polgár's name in a written form first appears in 1229, in Váradi Regestrum. The origin of this name is still under dispute between linguists and historians. During the Tatar invasion Polgár's area was totally destroyed and depopulated. According to authentic sources it was populated again during 1440-50’s as a result of Hunyadi’s efforts.
In 1501 Bakócz Tamás archbishop, got into his possession Polgár and Szentmargita, donated it to an Eger chapter together with Ároktõ. Both localities were than attached to Borsod county with royal approval and stayed there entirely by 1511. Based on revealed by researchers data, which can be found in a monograph, published in 1974, after the Tartar invasion, by the XV-XVI. Century turning Polgár has stepped onto development of an agricultural city.
In mid of the Century authentic data correspond about Polgár and Szentmargita, mentioning them as "oppidum" (city). By the end of XVI. Century, as a result of Turkish occupation and German destruction both settlements (Polgár and Szentmargita) have been almost entirely depopulated. This status lasted between 1559 and 1608, when the soldiering Hajduks were settled in. Hence Polgár has entered into the Hajduk’ cities, with filing in 1614.
Based on the authentic data we’ve got from that period, between 1613 and 1692 Polgár was regarded as independent city of Hajduk, with a special legal status, called "separata porta”.
During this period Polgár, beside the formal existence of the military organization, ensuring the special title of the Hajduk privilege, with wide-ranging autonomy (e.g. local government), was slowly transformed into a free peasant market town. This was characterized mainly by switching to the peasant-civil lifestyle: the large-scale Hungarian puszta livestock production, and, in a smaller scale, the agriculture, the fair keeping right, the grain and cattle trade, and the incomes of the ferry right, which was granted in 1630.
According to districts of Hajduk towns, dated in February 11, 1718, Polgár has left the community of Hajduk cities. This was followed by another period of depopulation. In fact, it can be explained as kind of protest of Polgár’ citizens against the unbearable double taxation (e.g. war-tax and the landlord tax burdens). Thus the 110 year city of Hajduk era has come to its end.
In the new section, running from 1718 to 1848, the new inhabitants of Polgár were brought by Eger chapter from different counties around. Being resettled these inhabitants have turned entirely into serfs, nevertheless they did not resign for the reduction of the landlord burdens and the restoration of „separata porta” status. The special legal status was finally swapped by Parliament decree in 1802. This has lead to the increase of the feudal burdens and the escalation of anti-feudal fights.
After 1848 significant improvement occurred in the life of Polgár’ civil serfs', because they were granted more land. None the less, the hurrying closeness of the chapter’s large estate hindered their expansion largely, concerning their farming. Polgár' further development was than characterized by a large-scale increase of the population until the first world war. The two world scale collisions have caused much harm and suffering immense for the large village's folk.
The social structure changed. Financial differences were growing. Grew up the number of land demanding people as well as the strata of servants, living on casual labors and poor peasants' class. The land distribution, held in August, 1945 has brought significant changes of considerable measure in their life. At this time 75 % of the adult population has dealt with agriculture. Crucial changes all began with the land distribution in the economic life, which than were followed by reorganizing the local public administration.
In March, 1949, the settlement’s council body took decision about Polgár’ electrification. In 1952 there began forming of collective farms, followed by the organization of the agricultural machine station. As from January 1st, 1947, a new independent village was formed, named Újszentmargita as well as a new small town was formed, named Újtikos. Polgár’ affiliation changed again: from December 14th, 1949 the Cabinet Ministers of Hungarian People’s Republic has separated Polgár from Szabolcs county and attached to Hajdú-Bihar county with its Decree № 4.343.
In 1950 a new district was organized with its seat in Polgár. To this district belonged neighboring towns, like Egyek, Görbeháza, Polgár, Tiszacsege, Újszentmargita and the Újtikos district notary office. The Hungarian Revolutionary Labor – Peasant Government with its decision № 1016/1969. (IV. 29.) declared Polgár a large village. In line with this the local council was declared a large village council though, effective from January 1, 1970.
The № 17/1970. Presidential Decree cancelled the Polgár district status within Hajdú-Bihar county. Along with this all the inhabited settlements were attached to the of Debrecen district. After the districts' system was amended, Polgár, Újtikos and Tiszagyulaháza large villages have formed a common council.
This administrative form remained in operation until 1990. Effective. January 1st, 1991, Újtikos and Tiszagyulaháza became independent. From that on both towns have their own independent local governments. In 1992 Folyás also received its independent status The collective consciousness of Polgár civil folk still retains strong heritage of its past: the urban community, the city of Hajduk, and the district seat past, as well as aims to the local leadership, striving for autonomy and area driving role.
For historical reasons, coming out from continuity, they consider they have paid the price for the deserved and acquired right to play economic-administrative directing role, and its survival within modern urban circumstances.
That’s why the applied for the status of being a city again. This application was successful and the President of Republic has announced with its decree, dated 1992. (XII. 18.) KE Polgár large village was granted the urban title with effect of January 1, 1993. The long awaited desire of the local population living has came true.









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